The article deals with the step-by-step implementation of the development of environmental moral competence in students, the main difference between the concept of competence and other related concepts. The educational process will also cover the development of students' responsibility for the environment and ecological environment through environmental knowledge, skills and abilities.
Currently, the organization of integrated learning and the formation on this basis of a variety of knowledge and skills of students of higher education remains one of the pressing problems. The formation of ecoethical competence in students is also a process based on integrative education. After all, the formation of ecological knowledge and skills in connection with the science of ethics and reinforcement based on moral principles is based on integrated education.
The National Encyclopaedia of Uzbekistan stresses that education is a process of transferring knowledge, skills and abilities, the main means of preparing a person for life and work [3,107]. But it is a systematic, named, official form and appropriate means of service in all countries. Therefore, to give it a broader and deeper definition, we can say that education is a systematic, temporary, formal, relevant knowledge, skill, ability - a competence-based tool to prepare a person for life, including work. Since education has a social category, it is only a tool specific to an individual society. Because countries like India, Sri Lanka and Thailand have schools that teach elephants and animals in circuses. They are not part of education as a learning tool, not training. Learning through a learning tool prepares one for life and work.
Knowledge is man-made information about the phenomena of nature and society, a reflection of reality in human thinking [1,23]. Implemented in education theoretically, more precisely, by providing students with the fundamental scientific-theoretical basis of the respective module and course in lectures and seminars. Every science, or parts of it, has a scientific and theoretical foundation.
A skill is a person's ability to perform a particular activity or action based on previous experience [2,182]. The ability of the learner to implement the acquired knowledge in a specific activity or action. Skills are formed in seminars, laboratories and practical sessions of the curriculum.
Navigating is an art that is acquired and performed in a well-defined professional manner [2, 419]. Skills are developed as a result of practical training, such as industrial or pedagogical practice, field, field-experience, stationary or expedition.
Therefore, the formation of ecoethical knowledge and skills in society is the competence to be able to use the skills acquired in professional activities in a rational attitude towards nature, in an approach based on personal experience, in preserving the environment.
Before investigating the problem of ecoethical competence formation among students, it is advisable to consider the essence of competence and the competence approach, analyse them and analyse the social significance of ecoethical competence formation.
Competence is a broad concept which is translated from English as 'sompetence', i.e. 'skill', 'ability'. Competence is a person's possession of certain skills and abilities. It can be applied to different aspects of human life, including the educational process.
1. to use knowledge, i.e. to prepare the student to work narrowly at the expense of broad general knowledge;
2. Perform the work, i.e. prepare the student to work in a team, beyond the pattern of personal skills;
3. live together, i.e. prepare the student to understand others and resolve conflicts;
4. Develop, i.e. prepare to increase the "human resource" by developing the student's personal qualities and capabilities.
The acquisition of this level of competence takes place throughout a person's life and represents an educational or learning situation that gives them the opportunity to be educated in a way that presents personal or professional challenges. In the following 10-15 years, the amount of scientific research on competence in pedagogical sciences has increased 60-70 times. But there are still many opinions and views about its true meaning. Usually:
in science, a person who can scientifically and theoretically justify every phenomenon, process, situation or occurrence;
in education, a person who has knowledge, skills and qualifications that meet the requirements of formal education and regulations, and applies them in their life, including in their work;
in practice, a person with life experience, including work experience, who can mentor or coach people in their field;
Competence can be said to be the ability to apply theoretical knowledge in practice, so eco-ethical competence refers to the ability to apply the knowledge gained during environmental education in practice on the basis of moral education and an ethical worldview.
Our country has a number of craftsmen in various fields - competent or skilful people. There are many talented young people studying in higher education, as well as many young people mastering professions. Summarising all world experience to date, we can say that education is systematic, temporary, formal, relevant, a means of imparting knowledge, skills and competencies to prepare a person for life, including work.
Based on the above considerations, it can be noted that it is appropriate to organise the process of "competence-based education" rather than "competence-based formation" in the educational process. It can be described as follows: competence-based education is a means of preparing a person for life, including for work (profession), by imparting a certain level of skills, competencies or abilities through systematic, formal, relevant , knowledge, skills and abilities. This is why "Education for Sustainable Development" can be described as training a person to a certain level of competence within the systemic stages of education. In developed countries, people are not hired on the basis of their higher education, bachelor's, master's or doctoral degree or their code in the professional classification, but on their level of competence. In developed countries, people are not hired on the basis of their higher education, bachelor's, master's or doctoral degree or their code in the professional classification, but on their level of competence. For this purpose, differentiated tests, interviews and presentation assessment criteria have been developed depending on the position a recruiter may hold in an office, company, organisation or institution. The assessment criteria vary according to the employer's professional focus, and the mechanism for applying it has its own image. To summarise the reasoning, competence is a person's level of ability to independently apply knowledge, skills and abilities to achieve desired outcomes. In the theory of environmental education, the correct choice of a modern methodological framework, the placement of methods according to the types of education and the application of methods according to its requirements means the credibility, validity and practical relevance of the results obtained. Method (Greek metodos - way of knowing or researching, theory, doctrine) - orientation of practical and theoretical comprehension of reality, assimilation, study, cognition, a set of methods, way of selecting and justifying philosophical knowledge[2,615]. A method is not a theory, but a method used to conduct, justify, evaluate and conclude a theoretical study. Without these research methods, no scientific or practical work can be done. We fully agree with the description used in the International Dictionary, i.e. method (from the Greek methodos - research way, method) is a way or method of achieving a certain goal. In the national literature, the method is referred to variously as method, methodology, method, but in scientific research it is appropriate to use the generally recognised term "method". Methodologies exist in all disciplines, but environmental education must be chosen and systematised on the basis of its patterns, aims and objectives.
The authoritative Encyclopaedia of Pedagogy, published in Uzbek, defines the term "methodology" in two ways: 1) it is a set of concepts and ways of doing, realising, carrying out work; 2) the doctrine of teaching methods[4,307]. But:
Pedagogical methodology is the principles, methods, techniques, procedures and organisational complex of conducting scientific research, i.e. the study of pedagogical phenomena in order to solve the educational process. In our view, unlike pedagogical methodology, pedagogical methodology is not a teaching of methods, but pedagogical methodology is a way of planning, designing, implementing, controlling, monitoring, evaluating and summarising the pedagogical methods used in education and training, based on certain pedagogical regularities and rules, or rather a mechanism.
The following requirements in eco-ethical educational methodology can be identified in the formation of students' eco-ethical knowledge and skills:
The mechanism for eco-ethical education is only through influencing, introducing, improving and developing learners. Because the methodological approach changes over time, and the natural environment also has its own variability.
In conclusion, the integrative methodology for building students' eco-ethical competence includes an educational model and technology based on eco-ethical knowledge, skills and competences. The focus is not only on ecological knowledge, but also on the development of an ecological moral outlook.