Communication Development Articles
DOI: 10.21070/ijccd2023869

The Candidate as a “Political Goods” and the Electorate as a “Potential Client”: The Role of Public Relation on Political Campaign

Kandidat sebagai “Political Goods” dan Pemilih sebagai “Potential Client”: Peran Humas dalam Kampanye Politik

Cyprus International University

(*) Corresponding Author

political PR election processes candidate,political election commodity electorate potential client


The article is being concentrated on the essence of political PR and its components. Distinction within the directions of political PR will be made between PR of the public branches and electoral campaign PR. We will discuss the role and important of PR tools, also inform you about PR as a discipline and its background and its importance as in domestic as well in foreign political developments. We will focus on a PR as a mediator between media, politics and public, the PR professional as a practical implementer of PR, also PR profession in itself, fundamental principles of ethics, ethical PR, as its major driving vector. Media, as marketing instument, also marketing as one of the most powerful tool for managing political campaigns and, of course, their interconnection and collaboration with the issues of political PR and security.

Political PR is an English term (Political Public Relation) and is the specialized activity of political actors to spread useful information and misinformation among the population in order to form a certain opinion in society and make decisions. Among the hundred most influential people of the twentieth century, the honorable place was occupied by Edward Bernays, the son of Sigmund Freud's sister, who formulated the theory and practice of public relations (PR) and contributed to its development in the United States of America

PR is an abriviature, which represents - public relations, its main function is "public relations", which in its own way ensures the successful management of all other processes! The main function of political PR is to manage information in narrow and wide groups: candidate, MP, party, faction, society, public sector, non-governmental sector, media, business sector, family, individual, etc., this list can be continued endlessly.

At the beginning of the last century, the establishment of PR as a communication discipline began. The first fact in which was used the word "Public Relations" (Public releishenz) was as follows: after a series of railway disasters in the United States of America, the use of rail transport sharply decreased, which is why the American Railway Department instructed employees of several specialties to convince the customer of the safety of the railway. Then, members of the group of psychologists, sociologists, marketers and journalists were called public relations (PR) specialists.

The period of preparation of the soil for PR is 1900-1917: the period of formation of PR from journalism. At this time worked Rex Harlow, Ivy Lee and other prominent figures .

Period of the first World War: the main objective was to attract the population to support military action. President Wilson founded e.Y. "Crilly committee" headed by George Crilly. He created his staff Institute in about 3,000 regions. Thousands of people disseminated information received from Washington, and this information had immeasurable power.

The third stage can be called the "economic boom" of the 20s, the purpose of which was to bring products to the market, the stage when PR deeply penetrated and took root in business and not only

During this period, PR covered all spheres of public life: business, state management, church, etc.Sh. New PR agencies were formed, new specialists appeared.

The fourth stage is the Roosvelt era and the Second World War: during this period, public opinion began to be studied. A new tool emerged, the first public surveys. The basis was laid for the use of PR technologies in elections, what is very important, in 1933 was opened the first political consultation agency, headed by husband and wife Clem Wymaker and Lyon Backster. The Second World War revealed that advertising can be considered an instrument of PR. Advertising campaigns began to be organized.

The fifth stage is the post-war period:1945-1965. At this time, the first specialists in PR began to be trained in America. PR has dramatically developed international relations and international business. The development of techniques began. The creation of television brought tremendous success to PR both in the field of politics and business. Created PR-manuals. The foundations were laid for several international PR associations.

The sixth stage is the period of globalization of PR: this period is considered the era of globalization of information, characterized by the development of new technologies. PR consulting agencies are being created around the world, the national economy becomes part of the world economy. In many countries, they successfully master the specialty of PR. Everything seems to become available at once, including information that is disseminated by PR.

The process formation of pablik rileishenz's as a profession reached a special dynamics in America at the end of the 19th century. The direct precursors of PR are considered to be the development of press mediation, the embodiment of which was the press agent. In the first half of the 19th century, the most famous representatives of this activity considered Amos Kendall and Finnes Barnum. The names of both representatives are significantly associated with the stages of the formation of PR as an independent public event. Amos Kendall became the first press secretary of the president in the history of PR. At that time, wandering circuses and theater troupes performed as pioneers of press mediation, which often hired specialists from the ranks of former journalists. Their duty was to ensure good press, i.e. good coverage by any means.

At the origins of PR journalists turned out to be the most prepared people who were able to establish themselves in Paire. Business also recognized the need for PR, as it turned out later, the best means of psychological impact were sincerity, friendliness and Justice. This is exactly what it was and still envisages in order to gain good relations with the society. The most important factor, which gave a powerful impetus to the development of the” fablik rileishenz " system at that time, was the development of the American national market and the formation of a mass Press, which by that time was already able to spread information throughout the country. Newspapers and their workers were the ones who made special attacks on monopoly. The first independent American firm to provide special services to clients was opened in 1900 in Boston under the name "pablissit-Bureau".

PR firms began to emerge in Washington, where laws were being passed and was required some pressure on the Capitol. The William Smith agency, formed in 1902, invited not only journalists, but also those who had previously worked in Congress . The appearance of Ivy Ledbetter Lee took pablicity as a form of press relations to a new level. He correctly realized that only constant relations with the press can bring the desired results for big business. In 1906, Ivy Lee sent an appeal on behalf of the firm she created to the publishers of the newspaper, where she formulated her convictions, calling it "the principles of declassification." "Our goal is to honestly and openly provide the press and the American public, on behalf of business circles and civil society organizations, with timely and accurate information on the issues that are valuable and interesting for the society.“

Ivy Lee timely and subtly provided the public with information about her client's charitable activities. In this regard, such an example is obvious. Rockefeller once remarked in a greeting to the University of Chicago: "my money was given to me by God." Lee interpreted these words in a press release as follows:"Rockefeller had in mind that his fortune was the result of historical randomness, which is why he feels more like a guardian than an owner."

The idea of the pragmatic expediency of informing the public, formulated by Ivy Lee, became the fundamental doctrine of fablick rileishenz in American society.

In my opinion, marketing is an integral part of PR, as well as a "mouth" for a person, because communication without an instrument is unthinkable, and these two faces, two wings are complementary to each other. If there is no desire to manage the masses, i.e. PR, there can be no need to provide them with information in various forms.

Opposing theorists Colter and Keller dispute theorists and the attitude and relation of PR and marketing. PR is considered as an integral part of marketing. Wilcox and Cameron develop the opposite opinion, separating public relations from marketing and opposing it. They believe that in many cases marketing is one of the components of PR. This version is completely acceptable to me ,because, for example, public services and part of private services (small entrepreneurs to a large extent) do not allocate PR and marketing department, announce competitions only for PR vacancies, and in turn, PR then places PR and marketing work.

It is also necessary to touch upon the importance of the electoral process of a political candidate. The electoral process of a political candidate includes-individuals and organizations. It, as an election subject, has the hallmark of political market as well as goods.

"The resources of the political party or coalition supporting him (political, financial, programmatic) and his personal qualities, on which the image of a politician is learned. At the same time, the image is equally important for those with whom this or that candidate and the political organization nominating him are associated“, at the moment of selecting the strategy of political campaigns, the plan and the result should be precisely defined. There are four directions of strategies with the experience of political campaigns in the world. These include the strategy of jump ", which involves a two-time jump, one before a pre-election campaign, and the other shortly before an election. This model is relevant, while the candidate is a little-known figure in society. The first and second jumps are aimed at spreading more information about the candidate and raising the rating. The second strategic plan is referred to as the" fast finale strategy": the campaign of this model begins quietly and has a growing character. Periodically, large concerts or speeches are held, the culmination comes a week before the elections in order to be crowned with success, the last week full of surprises is full of messages, that is, it is the last week that represents the final chord. The third strategy is called the "reissued strategy". It is used for highly rated candidates, they are active throughout the campaign, they are positioned, they have speeches, big meetings and the last week is also distinguished by increasing activity. In this case, there is a kind of "mix"of the first two models. In the process of campaigning, conflicts are frequent. Which is caused by the innate instincts of a tense field, violent aggression, survival and victory. V.L. Tsvetkov defines conflict as follows:"a conflict is a clash of views, positions, interests, goals directed at the mutual confrontation of two or more people." Conflict has functions. As it is: constructive, destructive, integrative, informative, signaling, social ties activizing, preventive, transformative and innovative-creative. Each has a basis, it can be artificially caused, to raise a particular topic, or to cover a topic "that is more important in a given situation than neutralizing or extinguishing the conflict. Conflict management is often done fully through political PR manipulations and is resolved as the campaign needs.

The main components of PR are: agitation - (Latin word for agitation - "bringing in motion") - verbal, printed or visible political activity that affects people's consciousness and mood in order to convince them of their political or other opinions. Propaganda - (Latin word for propaganda, subordinate to dissemination) — systematic dissemination of facts, arguments and other information. Serves to form public opinion. Propaganda is often used as a way to get rid of real as well as false facts. Political advertising is a crucial element of a successful election campaign. PR advertising originated in the twentieth century in the West. By the middle of the century, agen of tpublic relations John Schneider published a novel called "the Golden Mile". In his work he described in quite detail the psychological methods of influencing people that used during the 1960 presidential campaign. At that time, the first PR specialists appeared in political parties. Then presidential candidates became a kind of "commodity", and voters appeared like a "market" of goods. As a result, the confrontation between the two candidates turned into a confrontation between the two advertising firms. The victory was won not by the strongest, but by those whose PR service worked most efficiently. However, various methods of psychological influence on voters were used. Political PR was aimed at a specific voter, the methods of influence concerned the interests of the average citizen with an average level of intelligence. Of course, voters are not interested in hearing long speeches about global world problems. They are more interested in their own pressing difficulties, social, health, etc. Traditional ones were used: posters, posters, papers or television commercials. Advertising is a tool of market competition. The main tasks of political advertising are: to convey the essence of the political platform of certain political forces in an accessible, emotional, concise, organic and easy to remember form; to disarm voters in support of it; to form in the mass consciousness, to instill a certain idea of their character; to create the desired psychological mood, which determines the direction of feelings, sympathies, and then human action. Political advertising naturally simplifies complex political programs and focuses on simple alternatives, but it is precisely because of this that it becomes a highly accessible and effective tool for political struggle. On the other hand, the advertising itself and the campaign should be managed by political PR, but " to have good PR, no more , no less-is the challenge of the century! Having good PR means being successful and giving your business, company or enterprise a solid income. “

PR is the best manager, he seems to look at the process from above, sees events in perspective, foresee and summarizes based on his own experience . He is also a kind of prophet, and the main pillar of this is his experience, the intuitive solution already generated in the work process and even the mistakes he has made in the past make him more influential and professional. In order to successfully run elections.

PR needs to overcome four stages of management: first stage is pre-election period: preparation to election, formation of image ; second stage is elections: gathering votes for victory; third stage is after elections: formation as a politician, ienhancement of image , preservation of reputation; if the candidate fails to win-the process starts a new and often/unfortunately, the dissemination of negative information becomes relevant in the process, in simple words "unethical PR" is involved. Ethics is studied from childhood "do no harm!", "Do not offend the weak!", "Don't raise your hand at defenseless puppies and kittens!", "Do not humiliate yourself and do not humiliate the dignity of others!", "Do not violate other people's rights!", Have courage, use your own ingenuity!", "Behave so that the maximum of your willpower is the maximum of the willpower of all other people!".

Political PR can be timed for a specific period of time. To illustrate this, we will offer you three examples: political PR can be short-term - only during the election phase, long-term - PR that accompanies the politician in the process and provides long-term patronage even after victory or defeat; PR researcher - before or after the election, statistical information, electorate research or other.

Political PR is the main support for a politician, it accompanies him like a shadow and seems to even perform the function of his "protection". The customer, on the other hand, has requirements, which he agrees to when drawing up the contract in case of correct planning; we present a list of the most applicable requirements:

1. Strategy development; selection of tools, planning.

2. Formation of Image.

3. Reputational support/'strengthening.

4.Caring for raising the rating of the politician.

5. Creating interest in the information field. 6. Communication with journalists.

7. Oratorical preparation for speeches. 8. Preparation of creative materials for political speeches, campaigns.

9. Conducting pre-election campaign experience.

10. Provision of legal suppor.t .

11. Ability and experience to communicate with politicians and organizations known to the public.

12. Possession of competitors' information and obtaining alternative information 13. Conducting and managingof information war (provocation if necessary) 14. PR actions and meetings if necessary.

15. Gathering and involving political experts in the process if necessary (distribution of roles).

16. Political consulting and prophetic skills (taking responsibility for oneself).

17. Leadership skills and knowledge of mass management, psychological stability and PR insight.

Political PR is a rather complex multilevel process. It includes a number of activities: organizing and conducting effective campaigns; developing a strategy. Conducting sociological research; supporting the image of candidates; legal support for the entire campaign; developing a creative plan; external monitoring; working with organizations (public, political, etc.); involvement of regional and federal media. Confrontation with the services of competing candidates and parties. Preparation and production of various visual agitation. At the moment, various techniques of outdoor advertising are used: booklets, advertising of billboards, flyers, banners, banners, posters and others.

"Political PR is a set of various measures by which the set goals are achieved. PR specialists use various methods of psychological impact on the population in order to achieve communicative results in order to promote one structure and at the same time neutralize another. Political PR involves the use of such techniques as: creating the image of an outsider and a winner; the formation of false popularity; false support; long negotiations; the formation of desperate situations; clash of parties by artificial method through various events with the help of inches and other items.

Political PR helps the recipient of information (electorate, population) to form their own opinion about certain parties or figures. The most common technology included in political PR is e.Y. Literally this term means writing a specific text intended for oral presentation. The technology of communicative influence on the masses is also widely used. In rare cases, the use of personal PR Technologies is possible."Does the state need PR?"- This question is often raised and questioned In the same dose they reproach that it turns out that what the state really does not have is PR... Contradictory comments, views are often found , willy-nilly arise easily radical views. The middle dividing ring is "candle-searching". PRS employed in state structures create an information field between agencies and society, are obliged to provide people with information on how? Where and in what way to get the service, assistance or benefit provided from the hands of the state. That's why I think it should not be controversial that this commitment should be fulfilled, obviously with a properly planned budget, flexible tools and a positive attitude." PR of a state agency must necessarily be stress-resistant, because him needs has a hundred eyes and ears to listen to the internal officials of the organization, as well as external media, society and other agencies "wrist", information processing, constant monitoring and tense work schedule who does not really lack public service PR.

As Alman Bryan teaches in his work "you can program yourself to relax by using what are the signs of approaching stress in the form of post-hypnotic signals."He cites numerous examples of stress management, mechanisms for overcoming fear, phobia, excitement, panic attacks, self-possession and negotiation. In this area, it is common to distinguish between ethical and unethical PR. The latter contain measures that contradict the law and do not comply with the moral and ethical standards of society. Activities carried out within the framework of unethical PR are aimed at tarnishing the reputation of competitors, including collecting compromising materials, bribing, etc. Simply put, such events are the spread of negative information about someone. White PR, on the other hand, implies the use of exclusively legal measures aimed at reaching a compromise between candidates and the public. In other words, it is a bilateral system of information flow based on the principle of cooperation. Public relations as a field has evolved in recent decades. Accordingly, there is still a lot of research and work in this direction. trends, obviously, are changing, as the forms of communication with which pr is directly related are changing. However, in all cases the main principle remains unchanged - it should be mutual and form a beneficial relationship for all parties.

Accordingly, more than trends, techniques are changing, as technologies are evolving every day. Years ago, no one could have imagined that with "live chat" on a social network would be possible to communicate and interact with the target audience 24 hours a day, stimulate elections with likes and comments, analytics, debates, wars on social networks and cyber attacks. Therefore, from the 90s onwards and continuing through the 2000s, communication with the target audience took on a completely different dimension. Communication has become bilateral - at home, lying on the couch, cooking dinner in the kitchen, we can engage in election campaigns, write a letter to the mayor, prime minister or private company, criticize, criticize, humiliate, or praise and praise. Thus, simplification of forms of communication added a completely different dimension to public relations, which, I think, Georgia also successfully coped with. PR for political parties can be said to be the main means of communication with voters, but this field cannot be considered without marketing framework. The main reason for this is "the fact that voters only support specific candidates and/or parties as a group of individuals, and often the election program is second or third-rate, as long as voters trust the words of the candidates and their conditions."A real leader is not afraid to talk about everything, including "bare his head" if he finds himself in an unprofitable position. For example, to talk about the poor quality of a product and say everything honestly and thus save reputation of the company' .

Not all types of PR are productive. Public relations are then productive if this relationship is sincere and if the words and symbols that the audience understands are used in the communication. Communication should be built around the topics that the audience has thought about so far, which is important for them. Accordingly, we need to know exactly which segment we are communicating, what type of customer, target audience or voter we have. Among them, which of them, group, gender, age is neutral towards general election subjects, or which figure within the state PR is responsible for positive positioning. For this information, it is necessary to conduct research, which should be the basis and prerequisite for all campaigns or planned communications. It is worth recalling here what "Kotler and Levy noted that they sell political candidates as much as soap.“

In modern political science, the mass media are characterized by such "titles" as: "the great arbiter", "the fourth government", etc.. The belief in the omnipotence of the media is so great that political figures believe – "whoever controls the TV media controls the whole country."

It is important to focus on him-media models, as Andrew Heywood says in his work "politics". There are 4 models: pluralistic-which means different and diverse. The influence of the media on the electoral processes is not denied, but it means that it is impartial, that is, it appears as a kind of balance lever. The media plays a positive role as an "informant", it ensures the quality of democracy and is the controller of the government.

According to the prevailing-ideological model, the media is perceived as a politically conservative force and mainly reflects the interests of the economic team and the public elite. It promotes the obedience of the masses and also promotes political passivity. Model of obedience to the elite-this model is built on the hegemony of those persons who oversee the dissemination of information: editors, journalists, who on the one hand obey "media tycoons" and on the other hand also spread their interests due to personal views or benefits. Market model-does not recognize bias in the media at all. It believes that the media only reflects the real picture, because mainly it strives for business and profit maximization and meets the public demand, rejects " censorship". The function of media as the fourth government is to inform the public about the activities of the government, control the three legislative, executive and judicial authorities, which guarantee freedom, equality and Justice of the society. But the information transit of state structures is state PR, which is subordinated to the management of the entire state machine from the existing organization to the total higher echelons. And if the state PR is not free, how can it not be tendentious and impartial. Indeed, modern politics is unthinkable without the mass media. Media creates a space for monitoring political processes, opposing political positions and ensuring their connection with society. Naturally, it occupies an important place in the development of the Georgian state. It is the subject of constant discussion and discussion from both scientists and experts and journalists themselves.

On the other hand, politics is an activity through which people establish the necessary and general rules for coexistence, try to improve their lives and create a fair society. Of course, society plays a huge role in the development of its own country and the processes taking place in the world. In the process of democratization and search for free speech, the main values in media or journalism have not been lost professionalism? Does Georgian journalism / media have ethics? And if he has, is he guided by these ethical norms?! What spreading tools does it use in the workflow? And does it accidentally violate the security framework of the state or is it not a professional? And if there is no professional should we rely on his good faith that, despite his ignorance, will overcome the desire to resist the temptation?

I think that it is not disputable that political PR is the most important component of the election process, it plans and implements processes, brings the machine into action. What kind of car it is, what idea it carries, what purpose and vision, whether it meets the internationally accepted ethisk standard is really controversial all the time. What dose should be saturated with propaganda, whether constant propaganda has a detrimental effect on the psychology of the masses is the subject of complex research. And, as for PR of public services, it is a lost media “war” because the regulations that constantly accompany this link so much limit the harmonious working process, are so far ahead of the principles of creative adjustment, so placed in one link and inadequate that it creates a real threat to conduct the process instantly. As for the candidate, if you see him as a trading entity on the market and we are free from personal emotions, as professionals who sell "product" to potential buyers, we will be able to observe the processes from the outside and not from the middle of the process, it will be much easier to lead the process.

Thus, many innovations that are daily introduced into political PR and spread from world experience in less developed countries in the form of calque , do not adapt to society and ethnicity, this is also a separate big problem. Think with me.


  1. Magda Kotrikadze, PhD student of the Faculty of Political Sciences of the Caucasus International University, prospectus, 2021.
  2. Giorgi Kikalishvili, a bachelor of the School of Business Administration, topic "Modern spaces for the development of relations with society", p. 3.
  3. Andrew Heywood, Politics", third edition, 2007
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