Arts and Heritage Development Articles
DOI: 10.21070/ijccd.v15i1.1027

Global Modern Oasis Design Innovation through Reviving Ancient Egyptian Gardens

Inovasi Desain Oase Modern Global melalui Penghidupan Kembali Taman-Taman Mesir Kuno

Department Interior Design, Samarkand State Architecture and Construction University, Samarkand

(*) Corresponding Author

Ancient Egyptian Horticultural Tradition Cultural Heritage


This study bridges this gap by exploring the origins, composition, and cultural significance of Egyptian gardens. Through a multidisciplinary approach combining historical analysis and botanical research, we uncover the intricate interplay between trees, vegetables, and flowers within these gardens. Our findings reveal a sophisticated horticultural tradition, where lilies, roses, and various herbs held symbolic and practical importance. Furthermore, drawing parallels between ancient practices and modern landscaping, we propose the integration of Egyptian garden motifs into contemporary park designs in Uzbekistan. By blending historical inspiration with innovative techniques, this endeavor not only enriches the aesthetic landscape but also honors the rich heritage of Eastern civilizations, fostering cultural exchange and appreciation.


  • Multidisciplinary approach: Integrating historical analysis and botanical research unveils the complex composition and cultural significance of ancient Egyptian gardens.
  • Symbolic flora: Lilies, roses, and herbs not only adorned Egyptian gardens but held profound symbolic and practical importance, reflecting religious and societal values.
  • Contemporary integration: Proposing the incorporation of Egyptian garden motifs into modern park designs in Uzbekistan fosters cultural exchange and enriches the aesthetic landscape, honoring Eastern civilizations' rich heritage.

Keywords: Ancient Egyptian, Horticultural Tradition, Cultural Heritage


Ancient Egypt as an independent state was founded in the IV millennium BC. The development of the state is closely linked to the Nile Valley, which carries its waters from south to north into the Mediterranean Sea. Tamaricks and palm trees grew naturally in the valley, and reeds, papyrus and lotuses grew along the Nile. The hot and arid climate, hot winds, and almost complete absence of precipitation excluded the presence of woody and shrubby vegetation in some significant territories. The ancient Egyptians created an advanced irrigation system, canals that supply fields with water, and hydraulic structures that protect cities and towns from floods during river floods. Magnificent palaces, sturdy temple complexes and pyramids, partially preserved to the present day, were built from valuable building materials that Ancient Egypt is rich in - granite, limestone, sandstone, etc.

Ancient Egypt is distinguished by huge monumental structures glorifying the pharaohs. The most ancient monuments are located in the delta of the Nile Valley, which is due to the fact that it was in this place that the birth of the Egyptian civilization was located. In Egypt, the building materials were reeds coated with clay, bricks from the clay of the Nile Valley and straw, and stone was used in monumental structures. The Egyptians borrowed artistic forms and pictorial motifs from nature: the sun, Lotus, papyrus, palm tree, and lions had a predominantly religious purpose. Architectural monuments of the Ancient Kingdom (ABB.28-23 centuries BC) pyramids of the pharaohs and tombs of the nobility, temples with columns in the form of lotus, palm, papyrus (pyramids of Giza: Cheops, Chephren and Mycerinus. The Middle Kingdom (ABB.21-18vv) stone tombs decorated with paintings on traditional themes. The shapes of temples with two rows of columns and a high middle part. The New Kingdom (XVI-XI centuries BC) – temples consisted of a sanctuary, a closed hall with columns and a closed courtyard surrounded by a blank wall.

Literature Review

On this topic, K.D. Rakhimov, A.S. Uraev, ” designing objects of a landscape architect " textbook. Tashkent; "Sano-standard", 2015. - 224 p. Author: senior lecturer of the department "Das" Dobronravova E.A. Textbook. Part 1. (STR. 114., TASI 2009). Rakhimov, K.D. Textbook "modern trends in landscape design" / K.Rakhimov. Tashkent: Izvestia-Press, 2017. Rakhimov K.D., Uralov A.S. Landscape architecture design of objects. –T., 2015. S.S.Ozhegov, A.S.Uralov, K.J.Rakhimov. Landscape architecture and design.. Samarkand, 2003. educational literature and research conducted by the IRA.


Employing a multidisciplinary approach, this research integrates archaeological findings, historical texts, botanical analyses, and cultural interpretations to reconstruct the intricacies of ancient Egyptian park gardens. By synthesizing diverse sources of evidence, the study aims to offer a holistic portrayal of these gardens and their cultural significance.

Results and Discussion

At this time, the gardens are regular: usually it is a square area surrounded by a wall, along the perimeter of which trees are planted, in the central part there is a vineyard; there are also rectangular ponds for keeping fish and waterfowl.

The ancient Egyptian garden was characterized by an organic combination of religious, utilitarian and aesthetic functions.

In general, garden art with clear laws of composition and planning was formed in Ancient Egypt:

a. a regular plan that includes the axial construction of the composition and the use of symmetry;

b. formation of closed compositions;

c. the presence of reservoirs as an integral and often the main part of the garden;

d. using rhythm as a means of composition;

e. the use of alleys and ordinary plantings;

f. the use of exotics in the assortment of woody plants.

Assyrian and Babylonian states (Mesopotamia) (8th-7th centuries BC). The main material for construction is a brittle raw brick. Cities were created in a round and then rectangular shape, surrounded by fortress walls with a double or triple ring. Depending on the location of Babylon, there are 8 wide streets leading to the city gate. A wide street leads from them to a certain temple .

Figure 1.Gardens of Ancient Egypt

Temples are considered secondary elements of the composition. On the terraces, the structure was used for ziggurat temples in the form of stepped towers. On their lower sites, plants are planted in pits with vegetable soil around the perimeter. Figure 1. (Architectural monuments of the Ancient Kingdom (ABB.28-23 centuries BC) pyramids of the pharaohs and tombs of the nobility, temples with columns in the form of lotus, palm, papyrus (pyramids of Giza: Cheops, Chephren and Mycerinus. The Middle Kingdom (ABB.21-18vv) stone tombs decorated with paintings on traditional themes. The shapes of temples with two rows of columns and a high middle part. The New Kingdom (16th-11th centuries BC) - temples consist of a sanctuary, a closed hall with columns and a closed courtyard surrounded by a blank wall).

In ancient Egypt, the first “pleasure gardens” appeared among rich priests. Their images, resting in the shade of trees and enjoying the taste of fruits, can be seen on ancient Egyptian frescoes.

Various fragrant flowers were grown in the gardens of the priests, the surface of the reservoirs was covered with lotuses and nymphs. And in Cleopatra's time, garden roses were often grown.

Everyone knows the hanging gardens of Babylon in Babylon. This structure consisted of 4 terraces, one above the other. The two lower terraces are planted with trees, and the upper one with shrubs and flowers.

The ”hanging gardens" of Semiramis were located in the courtyard of the palace of King Nebuchadnezzar and consisted of a series of high terraces: there were trees below, and shrubs and flowers above. There were also extensive parks for hunting and horseback riding. (the prototype of modern forest parks).

Not far from the city of Khorsabad, there were trees brought from other countries: cypress, cedar, maple, willow, poplar, laurel, boxwood, fruit trees. There is also information about extensive parks or forests designed mainly for hunting and horseback riding. These massifs are the prototypes of modern forest parks.

The Hanging Gardens of Semiramis are one of the seven wonders of the world. A more appropriate name for this structure is hanging gardens fig.2. (Sources of Amitis — Semiramis; according to third sources - Amanis): This was the name of the wife of Nebuchadnezzar P., king of Babylon, for whom the gardens were created. Presumably, they are located in the ancient state of Babylon, near the modern city of Hill in Iraq. According to an alternative version based on the rediscovery of Cuneiform, they could be located in the capital of the Assyrian kingdom of Nineveh and were built at the beginning of the 7th century BC. They are the wonder of the world, existing for the shortest time. The Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar p (605-562 BC) concluded a military alliance with the Median king Kiahar to fight the main enemy of Assyria, whose troops twice devastated the capital of the Babylonian state.

Having won, they divided the Assyrian territory among themselves. Their military alliance was confirmed by the marriage of Nebuchadnezzar to the daughter of Amitis, king of Media. Dusty and noisy Babylon, located on a bare sandy plain, did not please the queen, who grew up in a mountainous and green Mussel. To comfort him, Nebuchadnezzar ordered the construction of hanging gardens. However, in historical science, the name of the gardens is mistakenly attributed to the Assyrian Queen Semiramis, who lived two centuries ago.

Figure 2.Hanging gardens of Semiramis (mill. AB.VII century.)

Gardens in Ancient Egypt were commonplace. Perhaps arising from the gardens irrigated by the Nile River, as Egypt's prosperity grew, they turned into luxurious complexes with ponds, flowers, sculptures, and shady alleys of fruit trees.Gardens were laid out around the temples, palaces and castles of the wealthy Egyptians. In addition, the so-called grave gardens were laid out around the graves.

The history and development of ancient Egyptian gardens, as well as other aspects of ancient Egyptian life, were connected with the Nile River and the network of canals that fed it. The earliest gardens of Egypt were flower beds and vegetable gardens that belonged to temples where vegetables were grown for certain rituals. During the Middle Kingdom, large garden complexes and pleasure gardens appeared around the palace princesses around the possessions of wealthy Egyptians.

The layout of the Egyptian garden. Images of Egyptian gardens are found on the walls of tombs, some papyri and sarcophagi. The composition of the Egyptian gardens was based mainly on the principle of geometric constructions. Most often, gardens were built out of the blue and rarely on terraces.

The gardens were rectangular and symmetrically planned. A distinctive feature of Egyptian gardens is often the pool in the middle. There could have been many pools in the Palace Gardens of the pharaohs, including ones wide enough to float a boat. The ponds were artificial with banks paved with stone slabs. Aquatic plants grew in the pond, fish and waterfowl were bred. Pavilions, gazebos and chapels for household gods were built next to the ponds.

Extensive gardens were laid out around the temples. There were twenty-six vegetable gardens, as well as an ancient Botanical Garden with the inscription “all kinds of beautiful flowers and strange plants found in the blessed land conquered by his Majesty.” The temple gardens often had alleys of fig palms and plane trees (dedicated to the goddess of love Hathor). Sometimes the rows of trees stretched for several kilometers, connecting various temples. For trees planted far from the river, it was necessary to dig holes up to ten meters deep. The gardens grew flowers for religious ceremonies, as well as medicinal plants and spices such as cumin, qiz and coriander.

The palace gardens were huge, with many ponds and shady alleys for the recreation of the wealthy. The ancient Egyptian rulers planted plants unknown in Egypt and imported from other countries in their gardens. For example, Queen Hatshepsut sent an expedition to the country of Punt, which brought myrtle trees dug out of the ground with roots, along with ivory, myrtle and incense.

Since the time of the New Kingdom, pleasure gardens have been a common feature of the luxurious estates of wealthy Egyptians. In the center was a rectangular pond surrounded by rows of trees. The edges of ponds tend to have steps, which allows gardeners to collect water for irrigation. The pond is often surrounded by vineyards and surrounded by walls or columns decorated with colorful images of people, animals and plants.


In short, ancient Egyptian gardens fascinate, awaken the imagination, inspire. Gone are the days when knowledge about Ancient Egypt was reserved for a small group of insiders. Now every amateur can get acquainted with the mysteries of hieroglyphs, the history of a fascinating civilization, admire the majestic buildings, tombs of the country on the Nile River.

Small maples, walnuts, palm trees, figs, tamarix, poplar, and resinous trees grew in the valleys of the Nile River. But this was not enough for complete comfort. It was necessary to create gardens that would bring coolness and shade. ”He is poor, he has no shadow" - so the ancient texts say. The lack of shade is one of the most severe problems of the poor in this country. The organization of gardens in hot climates required artificial irrigation. Figs, mulberries, almonds, persimmons, and grapes were grown along a simple rectangular network of canals, which required the creation of rectangular symmetrically laid gardens.

The peculiarity of Egyptian gardens was that vegetables and flowers occupied almost the entire space between the trees. The gardeners of Egypt were engaged not only in the cultivation, but also in the distillation of lilies of the valley, gill stamens and roses. Minions, poppies, cornflowers, daisies, lilies, chrysanthemums grew in Egyptian gardens. The lily flower was a symbol of hope and brevity of life, fragrant oil was obtained from it. Flowers were widely used for the decoration of holidays, from which wreaths and garlands were woven. However, during the time of Queen Cleopatra (69-30 BC), special attention was paid to the cultivation of various roses.

Combining ancient Egyptian gardens with modern modern gardens and introducing hanging gardens into the landscaped areas of our country using modern devices would be an excellent ray of light. Currently, on the territory of the rapidly developing new Uzbekistan, the design of magnificent garden and park complexes modeled on the historical gardens of eastern countries, using mixed styles, combined with our national traditions, adds even more beauty to the beauty of our country.


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